Identification of the pest is of critical importance when deciding on a plan of action.
Pest off’s pest library discusses common pests that are found around your structures
- Insect pests
- Food infesting pests
- Wood destroying pests
- Other arthropods
- Occasional invaders
- Mammalian pests
- Avian pests
There are five species off cockroaches found in Ontario
- German cockroach (Blatella germani)
- American cockroach (Preplaneta Amer)
- Oriental cockroach (Blatta oriental)
- Brown-banded cockroach (Supella longip)
- Pennsylvania wood cockroach (Parcoblatta pennsylvanica)
The main attractions for cockroachesb are food, water and shelter. To them, almost anything is food, including any foodstuff, cloth, plants, paper. They can be found in every part of the structure, but most prefer some kind of damp environment .They are most activate at night. Cockroaches may be a public health concern in certain locations such as hospitals or restaurants because they have been known to carry many species of microorganisms such as bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella, e coli), and some parasites.
European Earwig (Furficula auricularia)
It is one of the most common pests in homes and gardens. In large numbers they may cause limited damage to flowers, fruits and vegetables. The European earwig is basically an outdoor insect.
Field Cricket (Gryllus spp.)
Field crickets breed outdoors, destroy corps such as cereals, alfalfa and damage vegetables, peas, beans and strawberries. When their natural food is not available, they may enter buildings.
House Cricket (Achete domesticus)
House crickets live outdoors in the summer , but invade homes in the fall. They forage at night and hide in dark, warm places during the day. Once they invade a house, their chirping can become very annoying. They will feed on any plant or animal material, such as paper, cotton, wood, leather, and nylon.
Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius)
Bed bugs are reddish brown in colour, their bodies are small flat and oval. These bloodsucking insects hide in cracks and crevices in the sleeping quarters of humans and other animals. They try to hide as close to their meal as possible. They feed while you are sleeping. Their bites can irritate and inflame the skin causing itchiness and welts.
- Cat Flea (Ctenocephalis felis)
Cat flea is wingless, flattened from side to side and possess long powerful jumping legs. The cat flea is the most common flea in Canada
- Human flea (Pulex irritants)
- Dog flea (Ctenocephalis canis)
- Rat flea (Xenopsylla spp.)
- Squirrel flea
They may be found in the bedding of pets, furniture and carpeting. Less commonly found in Canada.
Mosquitoes (Culicidae family)
Mosquitoes are piercing and sucking insects. The female of mosquitoes are blood feeders. When they are feeding on a host, salivary fluid is pumped into the wound to prevent coagulation of the blood. The saliva often causes local allergic reactions. The mosquito’s saliva can transfer some microorganisms, agents of infectious diseases such as West Nile virus and Dog Heart Worm.
The common mosquitoes genera distributed in Ontario that are of major annoyance to humans and carry disease as follows:
There are several species of domestic flies that can be a nuisance and mechanical transfer agents of infectious diseases.
The common domestic flies found in Ontario are as follows:
- House Fly (Musca domestia)
- Lesser House Fly (Fannia canicularis)
- False Stable Fly (Muscina spp.)
- Cluster Fly (Pollenia rudis)
- Flesh Flies (Sarcophaga spp.)
- Black Blow Fly (Phormia regina)
- Green Bottle Fly (Phaenicia spp.)
- Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora spp.)
- Hover Fly (Eristalis tensx)
- Moth Fly (Psychoda spp.)
- Pomace Fly (Drosophila spp.)
- Phorid Fly (Megaselia spp.)
- Fungus Gnat (Sciara spp.)
The house fly vomits on its intended food before digesting it. This is a major reason that the house fly is an efficient transmitter of many pathogens.
- Varied Carpet Beetle (Anthrenus verbasci)
- Common Carpet Beetle (Anthrenus scrophuliariae)
- Furniture Carpet Beetle (Anthrenus flavipes)
- Black Carpet Beetle (Attegenus unicolor)
Clothes Moths include following species:
- Webbing Clothes Moth (Tineola bisselliella)
- Case – Making Clothes Moth (Tinea pellionelia)
The following list are ants that may be found in Ontario:
- European Fire Ant (Myrmica rubra)
- Crazy Ant (Paratrrechina longicornis)
- Field Ant (Formica spp.)
- Honey Ant (Prenolepis impairs)
- Large Yellow Ant (Acanthomyops interjectus)
- Odorous House Ant (Tapinoma sessile)
- Acrobat Ant (Crematogaster spp.)
- Little Black Ant (Monomorium minimum)
- Thief Ant (Solenopsis molesta)
- Pharaoh Ant (Monomorium pharaonis)
- Pavement Ant (Tetramorium caespitum)
- Ghost Ant (Tapinomona melancephalum)
Bees, Wasps, and Hornets
Bees, Wasps and Hornets are in most respects a beneficial insect. But when they make their nests in or around homes or occupied buildings it can cause a major concern.
The following is a list of Bees, Wasps and Hornets:
- Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)
- Bumble Bees (Bombus spp.)
- Umbrella Wasp (Paper wasp)
- Bald – Faced Hornets (Vespula macula)
- Yellow Jackets (Vespula spp.)
- European Hornet (Vespa carbro)
- Mud Daubers
Food Infesting Pests
There are many types of food infesting pests in Canada. They will infest food commodities such as nuts, flour, cereal, pasta, dried fruits, beans and pet food.
Here is a list of some food infesting pests:
- Granary Weevil (Sitophilus granaries)
- Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae)
- Angoumois Grain Moth (Sitotroga cerealella)
- Bean Weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus)
- Cadelle (Tenebriodes mauritanicus)
- Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella)
- Mediterranian Flour (Ephestia kuehniella)
- Confused Flour Beetle (Tribolium confusion)
- Large Flour Beetle (Tribolium destructor)
- Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
- Black Flour Beetle (Tribolium madens)
- Saw – Toothed Grain Beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis)
- Merchant Grain Beetle (Oryzaephilus Mercator)
- Drugstore Beetle (Stegobium pamceum)
- Cigarette Beetle (Lasioderma serricorne)
- Rusty Grain Beetle (Cryptolestes ferrugineus)
- Flat Grain Beetle (Cryptolestes pusillus)
- Cheese Skipper (Piophila casei)
- Silverfish (Lepisma Saccharina)
- Firebrats (Thermobia domestica)
- Booklice (Liposcelis divinalorius)
- Yellow Meal Worm (Tenebrio molitor)
- Dark Meal Worm (Tenebrio obscurus)
- Spider Beetle (Mezium spp. and ptinus spp.)
- Foreign Grain Beetle (Ahasverus advena)
- Minute Brown Scavenger Beetle (Lathridius minutus)
- Black Carpet Beetle (Attagenus unicolor)
- Larder Beetle (Dermestes lardarius)
- Grain Mites (Acarus siro)
- Cheese Mite (Tyrophagus casei)
Wood – Destroying Pest
The pests listed below do not eat wood, they only nest in it. Although they do not eat it they can do considerable damage. They damage it, at different stages of their life cycles:
- True Powder Post Beetle (Lyctus spp.)
- False Powder Post Beetle (Bostrichids)
True powder post beetle and False powder post beetle commonly attack hardwood floors, the damage is done by the larvae.
- Furniture Beetle (Anobiids)
Furniture beetles are commonly found in Ontario and may cause serious damage to buildings, furniture and other wooden articles.
- Long – Horned Beetle (Round – headed Wood Borers)
The larvae are the destructive stage. It only attacks softwoods.
- Metallic Wood Borer (Flat – headed Wood Borers)
Structural lumber and timber stored in lumber yards may be infested by Metallic Wood Borers larvae.
- Wharf Borer (Necerda melanura)
It has a strong attraction to rotting wood.
- Carpenter Ant (Camponotus spp.)
In buildings they nest in moist seasoned wood. They can do extensive damage.
- Eastern Carpenter Bee (Xylocopa virginica)
It is extensive excavation of wood members may weaken their structural soundness.
Arachnids and other Anthropods
Except Insects, there are some arthropods including Spiders and Mites classified as Arachnida .Most of the spiders in the home become active only at night.
Large buildings often attract a variety of spiders and have reported heavy infestations. Spiders are also found in large numbers at cottages and buildings near bodies of water.
The following list include some species of spiders and mites that may be found in Ontario.
- Comb – Footed Spiders or Black Widow Spider (Latrodectus variolus)
The black Widow Spider will bite if molested and poisonous.
- House Spider (Achoeareanea tepidariorum)
It is non – poisonous and cannot bite humans.
- Brown Spiders (Loxosceles reclusa)
The Brown Spider is very poisonous.
- Sac Spiders (Chiracanthum mildei)
It is non – poisonous but may cause an allergic reaction.
- Funnel Web Spiders (Tegenaria domestica)
It is non – poisonous but can deliver a painful bite.
- Jumping Spiders (Salticus scenicus)
- Orb Weaver Spiders (Garden Spider)
The following list is Commonly Mites may be found in Ontario:
- Clover Mites (Bryobia spp.)
The Clover Mite is a plant feeding mite.
- Northern Fowl Mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum)
- Chicken Mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)
They are the most common ectoparasites of chickens and many wild birds
- Centipedes (Scutigera coleoptrata)
Are found in damp areas such as basements and produce.
The Millipede do not bite or sting.
- Sowbugs and Pillbugs
The Sowbug may damage roots and leaves of plants
Mammalian pests include:Rodentia include mice, rats and squirrels which are characterized by two pairs of incisor teeth. The incisor teeth are separated from the molars by a gap, since the Carnivora teeth are absent.
The following pests are classed as Rodentia:
- Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus)
It is the rat of economic importance in Canada.
- Roof Rat (Rattus rattus)
This is a minor pest in Ontario.
- House Mouse (Mus musculus)
It is smaller than a rat but can be differentiated from a young rat by having a smaller head , hind feet and tail longer than body.
Rodents are pests because they cause damage to food and properties.
They are a reservoir of many serious diseases such as salmonellosis, ricketsiosis, leptospirosis, borreliosis, lymphatic choriomeningitis, and some parasites.
The order of Carnivora include Raccoons belonging to the family Procyonidae and Skunks belonging to the family Mephitidae are omnivorous and nocturnal in behaviour.
The bats are categorized as Chiroptera. It is the only true flying mammal.
Bat guano odour and the noise in attic colonies can make can be bothersome. Bat guano may contain Histoplasma fungus, so it will be necessary to remove the bats.
The Following species of bats commonly found in Ontario.
- Little Brown Bat (Myotis lucifugus)
- Small-Footed Bat (Myotis leibii)
- Eastern Long-eared Bat (Myotis septentrionalis)
- Eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus)
- Big Brown Bat (Eptesicus fuscus)
- Silver-haired Bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)
- Red Bat (Lasiurus borealis)
- Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus)
The following major bird species are considered pests in Ontario:
- House Sparrow (English sparrow)
- Starling (Sturnus vulgaris)
- Pigeon (Columba livia)
The avian, including Sparrows, starlings and pigeons can all carry many infectious diseases such as Newcastle, Tuberculosis, Encephalitis, Toxoplasmosis, Aspergillosis which can be transmitted to humans. They are also a nuisance in urban areas.
- Ring-Billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)
- Herring Gull (Larus argentatus)
The Gulls are noisy neighbours and their droppings deface lamp standards, sidewalks, park benches and cars in parking areas.
- Canada Goose (Branta Canadensis)
They inhabit parks and golf courses, eat the grass and leave droppings everywhere. They can be very aggressive during mating season, if you come in proximity to their nest.